Piston Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structures and Systems Module 12

11.1 Theory of Flight
11.1.1 Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls
Operation and effect of:
— roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
— pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence
stabilisers and canards;
— yaw control, rudder limiters;
Control using elevons, ruddervators;
High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons;
Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels;
11.2 Airframe Structures — General Concepts
Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
Zonal and station identification systems;
Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
Drains and ventilation provisions;
System installation provisions;
Lightning strike protection provision.
Aircraft bonding
Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting;
Surface cleaning;
Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
11.3 Airframe Structures — Aeroplanes
11.3.1 Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56)
Construction and pressurisation sealing;
Wing, tail-plane pylon and undercarriage attachments;
Seat installation;
Doors and emergency exits: construction and operation;
Window and windscreen attachment.
11.3.2 Wings (ATA 57)
Fuel storage;
Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.
11.3.3 Stabilisers (ATA 55)
Control surface attachment.
11.3.4 Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57)
Construction and attachment;
Balancing — mass and aerodynamic.
11.3.5 Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54)
— Construction;
— Firewalls;
— Engine mounts.
11.4 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21)
Pressurisation and air conditioning systems;
Cabin pressure controllers, protection and warning devices.
11.5 Instruments/Avionic Systems
11.5.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems.
Other aircraft system indication.
11.5.2 Avionic Systems
Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of:
— Auto Flight (ATA 22);
— Communications (ATA 23);
— Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
11.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)
Batteries Installation and Operation;
DC power generation;
Voltage regulation;
Power distribution;
Circuit protection;
Inverters, transformers.
11.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)
Emergency equipment requirements;
Seats, harnesses and belts.
Cabin lay-out;
Equipment lay-out;
Cabin Furnishing Installation (level 2);
Cabin entertainment equipment;
Galley installation;
Cargo handling and retention equipment;
11.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)
Fire extinguishing systems;
Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
System tests.
Portable fire extinguisher.
11.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder;
Trim tabs;
High lift devices;
System operation: manual;
Gust locks;
Balancing and rigging;
Stall warning system.
11.10 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
System lay-out;
Fuel tanks;
Supply systems;
Cross-feed and transfer;
Indications and warnings;
Refuelling and defuelling.
11.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
System lay-out;
Hydraulic fluids;
Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
Pressure generation: electric, mechanical;
Pressure Control;
Power distribution;
Indication and warning systems.
11.12 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
Ice formation, classification and detection;
De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and
Probe and drain heating;
Wiper systems.
11.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
Construction, shock absorbing;
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
Indications and warning;
Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;
11.14 Lights (ATA 33)
External: navigation, anti collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
11.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)
System lay-out: cockpit, cabin;
Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
Supply regulation;
Indications and warnings;
11.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)
System lay-out;
Sources: engine/APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
Pressure control;
Indications and warnings;
Interfaces with other systems.
11.17 Water/Waste
Water system lay-out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
Toilet system lay-out, flushing and servicing;
Corrosion aspects.