Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structures and systems Module 11

11.1 Theory of Flight
11.1.1 Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls
Operation and effect of:
— roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
— pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards;
— yaw control, rudder limiters;
Control using elevons, ruddervators;
High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons;
Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels;
11.1.2 High Speed Flight
Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight, Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock wave, aerodynamic heating, area rule;
Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft;
Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.
11.2 Airframe Structures — General Concepts
Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
Zonal and station identification systems;
Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
Drains and ventilation provisions;
System installation provisions;
Lightning strike protection provision.
Aircraft bonding
Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting;
Surface cleaning.
Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
11.3 Airframe Structures — Aeroplanes
11.3.1 Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56) 1 2 —
Construction and pressurisation sealing;
Wing, stabiliser, pylon and undercarriage attachments;
Seat installation and cargo loading system;
Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.
11.3.2 Wings (ATA 57)
Fuel storage;
Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.
11.3.3 Stabilisers (ATA 55)
Control surface attachment.
11.3.4 Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57)
Construction and attachment;
Balancing — mass and aerodynamic.
11.3.5 Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54)
Engine mounts.
11.4 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21)
11.4.1 Air supply
Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart;
11.4.2 Air Conditioning
Air conditioning systems;
Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
Distribution systems;
Flow, temperature and humidity control system.
11.4.3 Pressurisation
Pressurisation systems;
Control and indication including control and safety valves;
Cabin pressure controllers.
11.4.4 Safety and warning devices
Protection and warning devices.
11.5 Instruments/Avionic Systems
11.5.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
Other aircraft system indication.
11.5.2 Avionic Systems
Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of;
Auto Flight (ATA 22);
Communications (ATA 23);
Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
11.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)
Batteries Installation and Operation;
DC power generation;
AC power generation;
Emergency power generation;
Voltage regulation;
Power distribution;
Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
Circuit protection.
External/Ground power;
11.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)
Emergency equipment requirements;
Seats, harnesses and belts.
Cabin lay-out;
Equipment lay-out;
Cabin Furnishing Installation;
Cabin entertainment equipment;
Galley installation;
Cargo handling and retention equipment;
11.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)
Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
Fire extinguishing systems;
System tests.
Portable fire extinguisher
11.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
Trim control;
Active load control;
High lift devices;
Lift dump, speed brakes;
System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical,
Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust
locks systems;
Balancing and rigging;
Stall protection/warning system.
11.10 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
System lay-out;
Fuel tanks;
Supply systems;
Dumping, venting and draining;
Cross-feed and transfer;
Indications and warnings;
Refuelling and defuelling;
Longitudinal balance fuel systems.
11.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
System lay-out;
Hydraulic fluids;
Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
Emergency pressure generation;
Pressure Control;
Power distribution;
Indication and warning systems;
Interface with other systems.
11.12 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
Ice formation, classification and detection;
Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and
Rain repellant;
Probe and drain heating.
Wiper systems
11.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
Construction, shock absorbing;
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
Indications and warning;
Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;
11.14 Lights (ATA 33)
External: navigation, anti-collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
11.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)
System lay-out: cockpit, cabin;
Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
Supply regulation;
Indications and warnings;
11.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)
System lay-out;
Sources: engine/APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
Pressure control;
Indications and warnings;
Interfaces with other systems.
11.17 Water/Waste (ATA 38)
Water system lay-out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
Toilet system lay-out, flushing and servicing;
Corrosion aspects.
11.18 On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45)
Central maintenance computers;
Data loading system;
Electronic library system;
Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).